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A flexible or hollow back is preferable because it allows the volume to open flat. In telecommunication, the portion of a physical network that covers the longest distance and handles the heaviest traffic.

All the issues of a periodical that precede the current issue, usually bound in annual volumes or converted to microfilm or microfiche to conserve space.

In the catalog record, the extent of the back file is indicated in the holdings statement.

A badge may also indicate the individual's position, enabling the patron to distinguish professionally trained librarians from members of the technical staff.

Used since the 16th century, backing also enhances the openability of a volume by creating a slight crease in each leaf near the spine. In edition binding and library binding, backing is done by machine.

Also, a conservation treatment in which an additional layer is applied to a flat item to provide support, usually on the reverse side of a weakened sheet.

Also refers to the material added as reinforcement.

In illuminated manuscripts, the background in a miniature can be undecorated, diapered, or foliate, with or without gilding, as in the preceding examples from a Gospel book and a In bookbinding, the process of shaping a shoulder on each side of the binding edge of the text block after rounding, before lining is applied to the back.